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Stainless steel is a ferrous alloy - a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements - for a wide range of applications. Because of its chromium content, usually 12 ~ 20% of the alloy, it has excellent resistance to stains or corrosion. In addition to many of the stainless steel manufacturers produced by the proprietary alloy, there are 57 kinds of stainless steel is considered a standard alloy. Many of these types of steel are used in almost countless applications and industries: bulk material handling equipment, exterior and roof buildings, automotive parts (exhaust, decoration / decoration, engine, chassis, fasteners, fuel lines), chemical treatment plants ( Scrubbers and heat exchangers), pulp and paper making, oil refining, water supply pipelines, consumer goods, marine and shipbuilding, pollution control, sporting goods (snowboarding) and transport (railway vehicles)).
North American food processing industry uses about 20 million tons of nickel-containing stainless steel every year. It is used for a variety of food handling, storage, cooking and service equipment - from the beginning to the end of the food collection process. Drinks such as milk, wine, beer, soft drinks and fruit juices are processed using stainless steel. Stainless steel is also used for commercial cooking utensils, pasteurizers, transfer boxes and other professional equipment. Benefits include easy cleaning, corrosion resistance, durability, economy, food flavor protection and hygienic design.
Stainless steel has several types depending on its microstructure. Austenitic stainless steels contain at least 6% nickel and austenite-carbon containing iron with a face-centered cubic structure with good corrosion resistance and high ductility (the ability of the material to bend without cracking). Ferritic stainless steel (ferrite with body-centered cubic structure) has better resistance to stress corrosion than austenite, but is difficult to weld. The martensitic stainless steel contains iron with a needle-like structure.
Duplex stainless steel, which usually contains equal amounts of ferrite and austenite, provides better resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in most environments. They also have excellent resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking, and they are twice the normal austenite strength. Therefore, duplex stainless steel is widely used in refineries, gas processing plants, paper mills and seawater pipeline facilities in the chemical industry.
Stainless steel is made of some basic elements of the earth: iron ore, chromium, silicon, nickel, carbon, nitrogen and manganese. The properties of the final alloy are adjusted by varying the amount of these elements. For example, nitrogen can improve tensile properties, such as ductility. It also improves corrosion resistance, which makes it valuable in duplex stainless steel.
The manufacture of stainless steel involves a range of processes. First, the steel is melted and then cast into a solid form. After the various molding steps, the steel is heat treated and then cleaned and polished to achieve the desired surface finish. , Which is packaged and sent to the manufacturer, who are welded and added to produce the desired shape.